Duke William of Normandy’s successful invasion of England was sealed with victory over King Harold’s tired defenders, who rushed to the south coast after defeating a different invading force led by the Norwegian king, Harald Hardrada. The Norman Conquest ushered in a new era of centralised government in England.
After losing many of his French possessions, King John allied with the Holy Roman Emperor and several other European rulers to try to win them back. It did not help. John and his allies were defeated and English nobles rose up against their king, forcing him to sign the Magna Carta.
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