Students in UK schools usually get their first look into the quantum world in years 12 and 13. The wave properties of electromagnetic radiation are established through diffraction and interference experiments, such as Young’s slits. The particulate nature of EM radiation is introduced through the photoelectric effect and its explanation by Einstein in a seminal 1905 paper, which built on the work of Max Planck and laid the foundations for quantum theory.
In this question, part (a) deals with the basic phenomenon — a piece of bookwork with which students should be familiar. It is set in the context of a particular circuit but, as the determination of the Planck constant using the photoelectric effect forms one of the specified practicals of both the Eduqas and WJEC specifications, this should present no novel challenges.
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