Nanotechnology is the study and manipulation of objects in the approximate size range 1–100nm (1nm = 1 × 10–9 m).
Electron microscopes are important instruments for nanotechnologists. Both particle and wave models are needed to explain how they work. In a scanning transmission electron microscope (1), an electron gun (2) accelerates electrons to high energy. The electron beam is steered using magnetic lenses (3) and focused to a fine spot on the object being studied, which absorbs and scatters electrons. Sensors detect the intensity of the beam transmitted through the object, and the spot is scanned in a grid pattern to build up an image (4).
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