All A-level exam specifications require an understanding of the methods, influence and effectiveness of racial rights campaigns. You also need to be able to discuss the impact of these campaigns on current domestic policy, such as voting rights, affirmative action and representation.
On 28 August 2016, American football player Colin Kaepernick carried out his first act of defiance. Largely unnoticed by fans, he sat on the bench instead of standing during the singing of the national anthem before a preseason match for the San Francisco 49ers. What he did next was certainly noticed: in a match a few days later he ‘took a knee’ — kneeling instead of standing during the national anthem. In a country where patriotism and respect for the symbols of American democracy are highly valued, if not obsessed about, the outcry and accusations of disrespect were quick to follow. At the post-match press conference, Kaepernick said:
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